Skip navigation

About IDEA Center

News & Events

Membership

Resources

IDEA Student Clubs

Search

Contact Us

Home


Resources

List of Intellectual Doubters of Darwinism


Click here to skip down to the list.

Preface: 10/24/00: Please note, though much time and research has gone into this page, it is always possible that there are some inconsistencies and false information on it. It is not intended to be taken as necessarily 100% accurate, although in my unofficial opinion, it is fairly close to it. Regardless, I have done my best to make it as accurate as I could, and if you know that any information on it is false, please feel free to contact us immediately at "info@ideacenter.org" as it is certainly not our intention to misprepresent anyone on this page. Thanks for your time.

Introduction: The claim is often made that few or no legitimate scientists or academics have any real doubts about the validity of Darwinism, naturalistic theories of the origins of life, or believe in the real scientific possiblity of intelligent design of life or the universe. The purpose of this document is to list individuals of high academic training who have publicly expressed serious doubts about Darwinism, other naturalistic theories of life's origin, or have expressed support for intelligent design theory, either in scientific journals, books, web-documents, letters, or other public statements. Our criteria for this page is that each individual must either 1) have a PhD, 2) be a professor at a university or 3) be moderately published in scientific journals, or 4) is a member of a mainstream scientific society.

As elaborated in the UCSD IDEA Club's Thoughts on "Project Steve?", this list is not posted because we are trying to make some ridiculous claim that there are more ID or creationist scientists than evolutionist scientists (there simply aren't), or because we think that should believe as we do because there are supposedly more creationists than evolutionists (belief should be determined by evidence, not popularity).

We merely create this list to refute the notion that no intelligent people question naturalistic theories of origins, and to combat such arguments, as Stephen Weinberg makes, that because evolution is the consensus, evolution, "should be presented to students as the consensus view of science, without any alternatives being presented ("http://www.aip.org/isns/reports/2003/081.html, emphasis added). The consensus it may be, but when enough intelligent individuals of high academic accomplishments find reason to question evolution, surely there must be more to the story than the one-sided view that most students are taught in school.

We hope the reader would not get the impression that this list tells of all the scientists and other intellectuals who doubt Darwinism. These are only the ones who have been so bold as to risk their academic careers and reputations by publicly expressing doubt. A visit to a simple undergradute evolution class shows that behind the scenes, there are many intellectuals who doubt Darwinism or privately acknowledge problems with naturalistic theories of origins. There may be many others who ought to be on this list, and if you know of others, please do feel free to e-mail us at "info@ideacenter.org". Thanks for reading!

In no particular order...

1. Michael Behe, "Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution" (1996).

2. Robert W. Faid, American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Scientist, author of A Scientific Approach to Christianity.

3. Michael Denton, medical doctor and molecular biologist, , "Evolution: A Theory in Crisis" (1985).

4. Francis Hitching, "The Neck of the Giraffe: Where Darwin Went Wrong" (1982).

5. Mae-Wan Ho and Peter Saunders, "Beyond Neo-Darwinism" (1984).

6. Soren Lovtrup, "Darwinism: Refutation of a Myth" (1987).

7. Milton R., "The Facts of Life: Shattering the Myth of Darwinism", Fourth Estate, London, 1992.

8. Rodney Stark, Professor of Social Sciences at Baylor University, see Fact, Fable, and Darwin.

9. Gordon Rattray Taylor, "The Great Evolution Mystery" (1983).

The following scientists (#'s 10-47) stated that "a critical re-evaluation of Darwinism is both necessary and possible" as found at "http://www.apologetics.org/news/adhoc.html":

10. ANDREW BOCARSLY, Ph.D. Chemistry, Princeton University

11. HENRY F. SCHAEFER III, Ph. D. Quantum Computational Chemistry, University of Georgia

12. ROBERT TINNIN, Ph.D Biology, Portland State University

13. Benjamin R. Vowels, Ph.D., Microbiology, UC Davis; formerly employed as Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

14. STEPHEN MEYER (Ph.D. in History & Philosophy of Science University of Cambridge), currently professor of philosophy at Whitworth College.

15. DAVID IVES, Ph.D, Biochemistry, Ohio State University

16. WILLIAM DEMBSKI, Ph.D. Philosophy (University of Illinois at Chicago), Ph.D. Mathematics (University of Chicago)

17. ROBERT KAITA, Ph.D. Plasma Physics, Princeton University

18. FRED SIGWORTH, Ph.D. Physiology, Yale Medical School

19. LEO ZACHARSKI, M.D. Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School

20. DAVID VAN DYKE, Ph. D. Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania

21. ROBERT JENKINS, Ph.D. Biology, Ithaca College

22. ROBERT C. KOONS, Ph.D. Philosophy, UT, Austin

23. GORDON C. MILLS, Ph.D., Biochemistry Emeritus, UT Medical Center, Galveston

24. ROBERT PRUD'HOMME, Ph. D. Chemical Engineering, Princeton University

25. ALVIN PLANTINGA, Ph.D. Philosophy, University of Notre Dame

26. GEORGE LEBO, Ph.D. Astronomy, University of Florida

27. JOHN FANTUZZO, Ph.D. Psychology in Education, University of Pennsylvania

28. WALTER BRADLEY, Ph.D. Chairman, Mechanical Engineering, Texas A & M University

29. DONALD L. EWERT, Ph.D. Molecular Biology, Director of Research Administration, Wistar Institute

30. DOUGLAS LAUFFENBERGER, Ph.D. Cell & Structural Biology, University of Illinois

32. JACK OMDAHL, Ph.D. Biochemistry, University of New Mexico

33. JOSEPH M. MELUCHAMP, Ph.D. Management Science, University of Alabama

34. KIRK LARSEN, Ph.D. Zoology, Miami University (Ohio)

35. PAUL CHIEN, Ph.D. Biology, University of San Francisco

36. WILLIAM SANDINE, Ph.D. Microbiology, Oregon State University

37. H. C. HlNRICHS, Ph. D. Physics, Linfield College

38. WILLIAM STUNTZ, J.D. Law Faculty, University of Virginia

39. CHRIS LITTLER, Ph.D. Physics, N.Texas State University

40. JOHN ANGUS CAMPBELL, Ph.D. Speech Communication, University of Washington

41. T. RICK IRVIN, Ph.D. Institute for Environmental Studies, Louisiana State University

42. DAVID WILCOX, Ph.D. Biology, Eastern College

43. STEPHEN FAWL, Ph.D. Chemistry, Napa Valley College

44. OTTO HELWEG, Ph.D. Civil Engineering, Memphis State University

45. J. GARY EDEN, Ph. D. Elect. & Computer Engineering, University of Illinois

46. H. KEITH MILLER, Ph.D. Biology (ret.), Capital University

47. JOHN COGDELL, Ph.D. Elect. & Computer Engineering, University of Texas, Austin

And others....

48. Brenda Peirson, Associate Professor of Biochemistry at Louisiana College, as seen in her testimony supporting academic freedom to challenge evolution.

49. Caroline Crocker, Ph.D. Immunopharmacology University of Southampton, as seen in Expelled.

50. Murray Eden, former professor of electrical engineering at MIT, sees chance evolution as "highly implausible" as seen in his article "Inadequacies of Neo-Darwinian Evolution as a Scientific Theory" in "Mathematical Challenges to the Neo-Darwinian Interpretation", pg. 109.

51. Marcel P. Schutzenberger, Mathematician, Professor at Univ. of Paris, in "Algorithms and the Neo-Darwinian Theory of Evolution" from "Mathematical Challenges to the Neo-Darwinian Intepretation")

52. Pierre P. Grasse in "The Evolution of Living Organisms" (see og, 3m 607m 104-7, 210-11, 244-246)

53. H. S. Lipson, British Physicist (see "A Physicist Looks at Evolution" 31 Physics Bulletin 138, 138 (1980)).

54. EJ Ambrose, "The Nature and Origin of the Biological World" (1982)

55. R. Fondi, Italian paleontologist, in Dopo Darwin: Critica all' Evoluzionismo (1980)

56. G. Sermonti, senior editor of Rivista di Biologia (Biology Forum), professor of genetics at University of Perugia, and former director of the Genetics Institute of the University of Palermo (Italy), see: Dopo Darwin: Critica all' Evoluzionismo (1980)

57. Dr. Colin Patterson (Senior Palaeontologist, British Museum of Natural History, London) as seen in his address to the American Museum of Natural History (Nov. 5, 1981).

58. Chris Mammoliti, chief of the Environmental Services Section of the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, publicly expressed doubts of evolution during the recent Kansas debates and member of the IDnet Board of Directors.

59. John Baumgardner, (Ph.D. in Geophysics & Space Physics, UCLA) geophysicist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. See Highlights of the Los Alamos Origins Debate.

60. Roland F. Hirsch, see his Distinguished Service Award Address for the American Chemical Society Division of Analytical Chemistry

61. Leith, B. in "The Descent of Darwin: A Handbook of Doubts about Darwinism," Collins: London (1982).

62. Bird, Wendell R., 1991. The Origin of Species Revisited: The Theories of Evolution and Abrupt Appearance. 2 vol. (NY: Philosophical Library). [original copyright 1988, renewed in 1989, 1991]

63. Cohen, I.L., 1984. Darwin was Wrong: A Study in Probabilities. (Greenvale, NY: New Research Publications)

64. Coppedge, James F., 1973. Evolution, Possible or Impossible? (Grand Rapids: Zondervan)

65. Davis, P. in Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins, 2nd ed. (Dallas: Haughton Publishing Co. 1993)

66. Dean H. Kenyon in Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins, 2nd ed. (Dallas: Haughton Publishing Co. 1993)

67. Kerkut, G. A. 1960. Implications of Evolution. (Elkins Park, PA: Franklin Book Co.)

68. MacBeth, Norman, 1971. Darwin Retried: An Appeal to Reason. (Boston: Gambit.)

69. McCann, Lester J., "Blowing the Whistle on Darwinism". (College of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN)

70. Moorhead, P.S. 1967. Mathematical Challenges to the Neo- Darwinian Interpretation of Evolution. (Philadelphia: Winstar Institute Press.)

71. M. Kaplan, Eds. 1967. Mathematical Challenges to the Neo- Darwinian Interpretation of Evolution. (Philadelphia: Winstar Institute Press.)

72. Spetner, Lee M., 1997. Not a Chance! Shattering the Modern Theory of Evolution. (Brooklyn, NY: Judaica Press.)

73. Sunderland, Luther D., 1988. Darwin's Enigma. (El Cajon, CA: Creation Life Publishers)

74. Wilder-Smith, A. E. (now deceased). Earned doctorates (The first in physical organic chemistry, Reading U. England), master of seven languages, positions included Full Professor of Pharmacology, U. of Bergen Medical School, Norway; Full Professor of Pharmacology, U. of Illinois Medical Center (received 3 Golden Apple awards). See his The Natural Sciences Know Nothing of Evolution. (San Diego, CA: Master Books, 1981).

75. Baum RF. Coming to grips with Darwin. Intercollegiate Review (Fall), p 13-23 (1975)

76. Bethell T. 1976. Darwin's mistake. Harper's Magazine (Feb.), p 70-75

77. Thompson WR. 1958. Introduction to the new centennial edition of The Origin of Species

78. Kurt Wise, Ph.D. Paleontology, Harvard (See The Origin of Life's Major Groups in The Creation Hypothesis)

79. Jonathan Wells, Ph.D. Theology (Yale), Ph.D. Molecular and Developmental biology (Berkeley). See Icons of Evolution.

80. Charles Thaxton, Ph.D. Physical Chemistry (Iowa State University), Department of Natural Sciences, Charles University. See The Mystery of Life's Origin

81. David K. DeWolf (Yale & Stanford), Professor of Law at Gonzaga School of Law in Spokane Washington.

82. Phillip Johnson, PhD., professor of Law at Berkeley. See, for instance, his book, Darwin on Trial.

83. Hugh Ross, (Ph.D. in Astronomy University of Toronto). Director of Reasons to Believe, see his, "Evidences for Design in the Universe".

84. Paul Nelson, Ph.D. Philosophy (University of Chicago), see his thesis On Common Descent

85. Mark E. Whalon, Ph.D., now at Michigan State University Center for Integrated Plant Systems, moderator of the Biological Evidence for Design session at the "Mere Creation conference.

86. Scott Minnich, Associate Professor of Microbiology at the University of Idaho, speaking at the "Science and Evidence for Design in the Universe conference at Yale University".

87. Siegfried Scherer, Ph.D Biology (Univ. of Konstanz, Germany) Professor of Microbial Ecology at Technical University of Munich. See his talk, "Basic Types of Life: Evidence for Design from Taxonomy" at the "Mere Creation conference.

88. David Berlinski, Ph.D. (Mathematics, Princeton University): see the abstract for his talk, "Radical Darwinism" at Mere Creation conference.

89. Wayne Frair, Ph.D. in biochemical taxonomy (Rutgers), Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. See his comments at "Can You Tell Me Anything About Evolution? A Bridge to Nowhere?".

90. Don Batten, PhD (Agronomy and Horticultural Science, University of Sydney). See His biography.

91. Carl Wieland, MD. See his biography.

92. Andrew Snelling. PhD Geology University of Sydney. See his biography.

93. David Catchpoole, PhD. Plant physiologist. See his biogrpahy.

94. Donald Chittick, Ph.D physical chemistry. See his biography.

95. Jack Cuozzo, D.D.S. University of Pennsylvania. See his biography.

96. Henry de Roos, BS and MS - University of Guelph, Education degree - University of Western Ontario. See his biography.

97. Don DeYoung, Michigan Tech University (B.S., M.S., Physics), Iowa State University (Ph.D., Physics), Grace Seminary (M.Div.). See his biography.

98. Ted Driggers, Ph.D. in Operations Research (U.C. Berkeley). See his biography.

99. Alan Galbraith, Ph.D. in watershed science is from Colorado State University. See his interview.

100. Russell Humphreys, Ph.D. Physics, Louisiana State University. See his biography.

101. David Menton, Ph.D. in cell biology from Brown University. See his biography.

102. Gary Parker, B.A. in Biology/Chemistry, M.S. in Biology/Physiology, Ed.D. in Biology/Geology (Ball State University). See his biography.

103. Jonathan D. Sarfati, Ph.D. in Spectroscopy (Physical Chemistry). See his biography.

104. Tasman Bruce Walker, Ph.D. mechanical engineering. See his biography.

105. A.J. Monty White, Ph.D. Chemistry (University of Wales). See his biography.

106. Steven Austin, PhD Geology (Pennsylvania State University). See his biography.

107. Ray Bohlin, PhD (University of Texas at Dallas, molecular biology). See his biography or his book, The Natural Limits to Biological Change

108. Linn E. Carothers, Ph.D., University of Southern California, University Park, 1987. See his info page.

109. Eugene F. Chaffin, PhD Physics. See his info page.

110. Paul Ackerman, PhD (psychology) as seen at the Answers in Genesis Creationist Scientist list page and his book, The Kansas Tornado.

111. Thomas Barnes, Physicist (deceased) as seen at the Answers in Genesis Creationist Scientist list page.

112. Aw Swee-Eng, PhD (biochemistry) as seen at his info page.

113. Jerry Bergman, PhD (biology) as seen in his article, Some Biological Problems With The Natural Selection Theory.

114. Kimberly Berrine, Phd Microbiology & Immunology. As seen at the Answers in Genesis Creationist Scientist list page.

115. Andrew Bosanquet, PhD Biology, Microbiology. As seen at the Answers in Genesis Creationist Scientist list page.

116. David R. Boylan, Ph.D Chemical Engineering (Iowa State University), as seen listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

117. Larry Butler, PhD (biochemistry) as seen in the abstract for his talk, A Problem Of Missing Links At The Ultimate Primary Stage Of Evolution.

118. Harold G. Coffin (PhD, Zoology, USC). See his works, Fossils in Focus (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1977) or Origin by Design (Washington, DC: Review and Herald Publishing Assn., 1983).

119. Brown, Robert H. (Ph.D. in Physics) University of Washington, Seattle. See, for one example, his article, Science Through the Eyes of Biblical Writers.

120. Lane P. Lester (PhD, Genetics, Professor of Biology at Emmanuel College). See his bio or his book, The Natural Limits to Biological Change

121. Sigrid Hartwig-Scherer, Ph.D. in physical anthropology. See the abstract from her talk at the Mere Creation conference.

122. Mark Armitage,

123. Forrest M. Mims, no science PhD but has published in leading scientific journals, books on electronics, and wrote for Scientific American. For a good understanding of him, read Defending Darwinism: How Far is Too Far? by Mark Hartwig.

124. Robert A. Herrmann, Professor of Mathematics, United States Naval Academy (Ph. D., Mathematics, 1973, American University). See his My Intelligent Design Priority page describing some of his ID ideas and publications.

125. Art Chadwick, Ph.D. (Molecular Biology from University of Miami). See his Abiogenic Origin of Life: A Theory in Crisis or A Creation/Flood Model

126. David A. DeWitt, (Dept. of Biology & Chemistry, Liberty University, Lynchburg). See his, Why Darwinism Is Incompatible With the Christian Faith.

127. William S. Harris, Ph.D. (nutritional biochemistry), Professor of Medicine at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Member of the IDnet Board of Directors.

128. Jack Cashill, Ph.D., Executive Editor of Ingram's Magazine. Member of the IDnet Board of Directors.

129. Yongsoon Park, Ph.D. (Nutritional Biochemistry), a research scientist at the UMKC School of Medicine and member of the IDnet Board of Directors.

130. James E. Graham, licensed professional geologist, Senior Program Manager: National Environmental Consulting Firm, member of the IDnet Board of Directors.

131. Henry Morris, Ph.D. Hydraulic Engineering (Founder and President Emeritus of ICR). See his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

132. Duane T. Gish, Ph.D. (Biochemistry from UC Berkeley). Author of numerous books and widely known as a debater arguing for creationism. See his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

133. John Morris, Ph.D. (Geological Engineering from Univ. of Oklahoma). President of ICR. See his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists..

134. Ken Cumming, Ph.D. Biology (Harvard). Member of ICR, see his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

135. Larry Vardiman, Ph.D. Atmospheric Science (Colorado State University). Member of ICR, see his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

136. Bert Thompson, Ph.D. Microbiology (Texas A&M). See his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

137. Jay L. Wile, Ph.D. Nuclear Chemistry (University of Rochester in New York). See his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

138. Danny J. Faulkner, Ph.D. in Astronomy (Indiana University), Professor of Astronomy and Physics *University of South Carolina Lancaster). See his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

139. Andrew C. McIntosh, Ph.D. Combustion Theory (Cranefield Institute of Technology). See his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

140. Tom McMullen, Ph.D. History and Philosophy of Science (Indiana University). See his bio page on ICR's page of creation scientists.

141. Fazale Rana, PhD Biochemistry, Ohio University. Rana is Vice President of Science Apologetics for Reasons to believe. See, for example, his article, "A Scientific and Biblical Response to "Up from the Apes. Remarkable New Evidence Is Filling in the Story of How We Became Human"

142. Joseph A. Mastropaolo, Ph.D. Kinesiology (University of Iowa). See his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

143. David P. Livingston, Jr., Ph.D. Archaeology and Ancient History (Andrews University). See his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

144. John W. Oller, Jr., Ph.D. General Linguistics (University of Rochester, New York). y). See his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

145. Kelly Hollowell, J.D., Ph.D. Mollecular and Cellular Pharmacology (University of Miami). See her bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

146. Raul E. Lopez, Ph.D. Atmospheric Science (Colorado State University). See his bio on ICR's page of creation scientists.

147. Jed Macosko (Ph.D. Chemistry UC Berkeley), Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Molecular Biology, UC Berkeley. See his report in the peer-reviewed intelligent design journal, "Origins and Design": Science and the Spiritual Quest Conference: A Report.

148. Chris Macosko, PhD. Professor of Chemical Engr/Mat Sci at Twin Cities campus of Univ. of Minnesota. See his comments regarding his doubt that natural processes could produce the first cell article about his UMN class on origins.

149. Bill Monsma, PhD Ph.D. Physics? (University of Colorado), Lecturer, Physics Dept. at Augsberg College. See his comments in an article about his UMN class on origins and also in his letter to the Minnesota Daily editor.

150. Charles H. Voss, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, Louisiana State University. Vice-President of the pro-creationist Origins Research Association.

151. Edward A. Boudreaux, Ph.D. Chemistry (Tulane University), Former Professor of Physical Chemistry, University of New Orleans. See his, "Basic Chemistry: A Testament of Creation.

152. Martin Ehde, Ph.D. Professor of Mathematics. Secretary of the pro-creationist Origins Research Association.

153. Lynn K. Carta, Ph.D. Research Plant Pathologist with the USDA. She is listed as a Reasons to believe Science Scholar.

154. Guillermo Gonzalez, PhD Astronomy, (University of Washington), Research Assistant Professor University of Washington. See his Solar System Bounces In The Right Range For Life.

155. David Rogstad, PhD. physicist at Jet Propulsion Laboratories. Member of Reasons to Believe's Board of Directors.

156. George Cleaver, PhD., Ohio State University. He is listed as a Reasons to believe Science Scholar.

157. Michael G. Strauss, PhD (UCLA), Assistant Professor of Physics, University of Oklahoma. He is listed as a Reasons to believe Science Scholar.

158. Alex Metherell, PhD (medical doctor), former researcher at UC Irvine. He is listed as a Reasons to believe Science Scholar.

159. Michael Newton Keas, PhD History of Science (University of Oklahoma). See his senior fellow page at the pro-intelligent design Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture with the Discovery Institute.

160. Jay Wesley Richards, Ph.D.(honors) in philosophy and theology from Princeton Theological Seminary, where he was formerly a Teaching Fellow. See his Intelligent Design Theory: Why it Matters.

161. Wade Warren, Professor of Biology at Louisiana College, as seen in his ID the Future Podcast.

162. Francis J. Beckwith, Ph.D. Philosophy (Fordham University), associate professor of Philosophy, Culture & Law at Trinity International Univ. See his fellow page at the pro-intelligent design Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture.

163. J. Budziszewski, Ph.D. political science (Yale University), associate professor of government and philosophy at Univ. Texas at Austin. See his, "Just the facts, please".

164. Jack Collins, Ph.D. Hebrew language (University of Liverpool, England). See his Is intelligent design a dumb idea? Current conflicts in biology".

165. Robin Collins, Ph.D. Philosophy (University of Notre Dame). See his "The Fine-Tuning Design Argument: A Scientific Argument for the Existence of God".

166. William Lane Craig, PhD philosophy (University of Birmingham, England), Phd Systematic Theology (University of Munich). See his, "Cosmos and Creator".

167. J. P. Moreland, Ph.D. philosophy (University of Southern California), professor of philosophy at Talbot School of Theology, BIOLA University. See his "The Creation Hypothesis" (Intervarsity Press, 1994).

168. Pattle Pak-Toe Pun, Ph.D. Biology (State University of New York, Buffalo), Professor of Biology at Wheaton College. See his fellow page at the pro-intelligent design Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture.

169. John Mark Reynolds, Ph.D. philosophy (University of Rochester), Professor at BIOLA University. See his fellow page at the pro-intelligent design Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture.

170. Wolfgang Smith, Ph.D. mathematics (Columbia University), Prof. Emeritus-Mathematics, Oregon State University. See his "Concerning First Origins".

171. Richard Weikarth, Ph.D. modern European history (University of Iowa), Assistant Professor of History at California State University, Stanislaus. See his, "The Resurgence of Evolutionary Ethics".

172. John G. West, Ph.D. Government (Claremont Graduate School). See his "C. S. Lewis and the Materialist Menace".

173. John Omdahl, Ph.D. Physiology and Biophysics (Univ. of Kentucky), Professor at University of New Mexico. See his, "Origin of Human Language Capacity: in Whose Image?" in "The Creation Hypothesis" (Intervarsity Press, 1994).

174. Del Ratzsch, Ph.D. Philosophy (University of Massachusetts, Amherst). See his essay, "Design, Chance, and Theistic Evolution" in "Mere Creation" (Intervarsity Press, 1998).

175. Robert C. Newman, PhD Astrophysics (Cornell University). See his essay, "Artificial Life & Cellular Automata" in "Mere Creation" (Intervarsity Press, 1998).

176. Arthur Constance, PhD (Anthropology) in "Evolution: An Irrational Faith" in Evolution or Creation? Vol. 4- The Doorway Papers (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976), 173-74.

177. Robert E.D.Clark (Ph.D. organic Chemistry, Cambridge University). See his, "The Universe: Plan or Accident?" (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1972).

178. Lyle H. Jenson, PhD (some Chemistry field), Professor Emeritus University of Washington. Physical chemist, did pioneering work in X-ray crystallography. He's a great scientist and close relative of an IDEA Club member; info@ideacenter.org for contact info.

179. Guy Berthault, Professor of Sedimentology, member of French Geological Society. See, for example, his, Experiments in Stratification".

180. Dr. Werner Gitt (Ph.D. Engineering, Technical University of Hanover), director and professor at the German Federal Institute of Physics and Technology. See his book, "In the Beginning was Information".

181. Maciej Gierttych, Ph.D. (plant physiology), Professor and director of the Genetics Dept. at the Academia de Polonia (in Poland). See his involvement with the video, "La Evolución ¿Ciencia o Creencia?".

182. E.H. Andrews, PhD Professor of Materials, Queen Mary University of London. See his book, "From Nothing to Nature".

183. Frank Salisbury (PhD Caltech, Professor Emeritus in Plant Science at Utah State University). See his "Doubts About the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution", American Biology Teacher, September 1971, p. 338.

184. Hubert P. Yockey (PhD, Physics UC Berkeley). See his book "Information Theory and Molecular Biology" (1992, Cambridge University Press) or his article "Life on Mars, Did it Come from Earth?" in the pro-ID Origins & Design journal, vol. 18, no. 1.

185. Mark Hartwig (PhD educational psychology, UCSB). See his, "The World of Design" among many other articles.

186. James R. Hofmann, Ph. D. (History and Philosophy of Science, Univ. of Pittsburgh, professor at California State University Fullerton). See his, "Data, Theory, and Evolutionary Phenomena", in Origins & Design (vol.17, no.2, pp. 6-9).

187. Philip S. Skell (PhD, Emeritus Evan Pugh Professor of Chemistry, Penn State University, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences). See his letter to the editor, About science curriculum from the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.

188. Gregg Wilkerson (Ph.D. Geology from University of Texas). He is listed as a friend of the Access Research Network, a pro-ID group which grew out of an organization he cofounded.

189. Phillip Bishop (EdD, professor of exercise physiology at the University of Alabama). See his, "Evidence of God in Human Physiology--Fearfully and Wonderfully Made.

190. Robert H. Eckel (M.D.), Technical Advisory Board member of the Institute for Creation Research as seen on their Creation Scientists Page.

191. Alexander V. Lalomov, Ph.D. Submarine Geology (USSR National Research Institute of Ocean Geology) listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

192. Ian Macreadie, Ph.D. Molecular Biology (Monash University in Australia), Adjunct Professor of RMIT University. Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

193. Lyubka P. Tantcheva, Ph.D. Biochemical Toxicology, Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

194. Walter J. Veith, Ph.D. Zoology (University of Cape Town). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page. See also his Amazing DiscoveriesVideo series.

195. John K.G. Kramer, Ph.D. Biochemistry (University of Minnesota). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

196. Benjamin Aaron, M.D. Board Member) of the Institute for Creation Research as seen on their Creation Scientists Page.

197. Alan Gillen, Ed.D. Science Education (University of Houston), M. S. Zoology from Ohio State University. Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

198. Edmond W. Holroyd, III Ph.D. Atmospheric Science (University of New York at Albany), listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

199. Todd Wood, Ph.D. Genetics listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

200. John Meyer, Ph.D. Zoology (Iowa State University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

201. Theodore Rybka, Ph.D. Physics - (University of Oklahoma). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

202. William Bauer, Ph.D. Hydraulics (University of Iowa). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

203. Edward Blick, Ph.D. Engineering Science (University of Oklahoma). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

204. Richard D. Lumsden, Ph.D. Biology (Rice University). Former Professor of Parasitology and Cell Biology and Dean of the Tulane University Graduate School. Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Biological Creation Scientists Page (as former Chair of ICR's Grad School Biology Dept. 1990-1996).

205. Donald Hamann, Ph.D. Agricultural Science (Virginia Tech). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

206. Harold Henry, Ph.D. Fluid Mechanics (Columbia University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

207. Joseph Henson, Ph.D. Entomology (Clemson University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

208. John Moore, Ed.D. Biology (Michigan State University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

209. Jean Morton, Ph.D. Cellular Studies (George Washington University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

210. Andre Eggen, Ph.D. Genetics (Federal Institute of Technology). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

211. Carl Fliermans Ph.D. Biology (Indiana University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

212. Robert Franks, M.D. (UCLA). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

213. Pierre Jerlstrom, Ph.D. Molecular Biology (Griffith University, Australia). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

214. George Lindsey, Ed.D. Science Education (East Texas State University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

215. John Marcus, Ph.D. Biochemistry (University of Michigan). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

216. George Marshall, Ph.D. Opthalmic Science (University of Glasgow). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

217. Joachim Scheven, Ph.D. (Zoologist/Palaeontologist) (University. of Munich). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

218. Emil Silvestru, Ph.D. Geology (Babes-Bolyai University, Romania). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

219. Bryant Wood, Ph.D. Archaeology (University of Toronto). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

220. Patrick Young, Ph.D. Chemistry (Ohio University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

221. Jeremy Walter, Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering (Pennsylvania State University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

222. Ariel Roth, Ph.D. Biology (University of Michigan). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

223. John Rankin, Ph.D. Mathematical Physics (University of Adelaide). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

224. Bob Hosken, Ph.D. Biochemistry (University of Newcastle). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

225. James Allan, Ph.D. Genetics (University of Edinburgh). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

226. George Javor, Ph.D. Biochemistry (Columbia University, NY). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

227. Dwain Ford, Ph.D. Organic Chemistry (Clark University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

228. Angela Meyer, Ph.D. Horticultural Science (University of Sydney). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

229. Stephen Brocott, Ph.D. Organometallic Chemistry (University of Western Australia). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

230. Nancy Darrall, Ph.D. Botany (University of Wales). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

231. John Cimbala, Ph.D. Aeronautics (Cal Tech). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

232. E Theo Agard, Ph.D. Physics (University of London). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

233. Ker Thompson, D.Sc. Geophysics (Colorado School of Mines). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

234. Arthur Jones, Ph.D. Biology (University of Birmingham). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

235. George Howe, Ph.D. Botany (Ohio State University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

236. D. B. Gower, Ph.D. Biochemistry (University of London). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

237. Stephen Taylor, Ph.D. Electrical Engineering (University of Liverpool). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

238. Colin Mitchell, Ph.D. Geography (University of Cambridge). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

239. Stanley Mumma, Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering (University of Illinois). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

240. Evan Jamieson, Ph.D. Hydrometallurgy (Murdoch University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

241. Geoff Downes, Ph.D. Tree Physiology (Univesrity of Melbourne). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

242. Wayne Frair, Ph.D. Biochemical Taxonomy (Rutgers University). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

243. Sid Cole, Ph.D. Chemistry (University of Newcastle). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

244. J.H. John Peet, Ph.D. Photchemistry (Wolverhampton Polytechnic). Listed on the Institute for Creation Research Creation Scientists Page.

245. Benjamin Wiker, PhD. (Now at Franciscan University of Steubenville, Department of Classics and Honors). See his "Moral Darwinism: How We Became Hedonists".

246. Neil Broom, (PhD and now Associate Professor of chemicals and materials engineering at the University of Auckland, New Zealand). See his "How Blind is the Watchmaker".

247. Douglas Groothius, PhD Philosophy (University of Oregon), Associate Professor of Religion and Ethics at Denver Seminary. See his Access Research Network featured author page.

248. Edward Peltzer (PhD Oceanography, Scripps Institution for Oceanography), Senior Research Specialist at Monterey Bay Research Institute. See his talk presented at the "Darwin Design and Democracy II" Conference.

249. Joseph W. Francis, Associate Professor of Biology (Cedarville College, Ohio), Ph.D. Cell Biology (Wayne State). See his Peering into Darwin's Black Box: The cell divsion processes required for bacterial life.

250. David Tyler (Ph.D., Management Science, University of Manchester; M.Sc., Physics, Loughborough University).

The following scientists (numbers 251-320) are listed on a list of 100 Scientists that agree with the statement, "I am skeptical of claims for the ability of random mutation and natural selection to account for the complexity of life. Careful examination of the evidence for Darwinian theory should be encouraged." :

251. Frank Tipler; Prof. of Mathematical Physics, Tulane University.

252. Walter Hearn; PhD Biochemistry-University of Illinois

253. Tony Mega; Assoc. Prof. of Chemistry, Whitworth College

254. Marko Horb; Researcher, Dept. of Biology & Biochemistry, University of Bath, UK

255. Daniel Kubler; Asst. Prof. of Biology, Franciscan University of Steubenville

256. David Keller; Assoc. Prof. of Chemistry, University of New Mexico

257. James Keesling; Prof. of Mathematics, University of Florida

258. Carl Koval; Prof. Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder

259. Tony Jelsma; Prof. of Biology, Dordt College

260. Timothy G. Standish; PhD Environmental Biology-George Mason University

261. James Keener; Prof. of Mathematics & Adjunct of Bioengineering, University of Utah

262. Robert J. Marks; Prof. of Signal & Image Processing, University of Washington

263. Carl Poppe; Senior Fellow, Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

264. Gregory Shearer; Internal Medicine, Research, University of California, Davis

265. Joseph Atkinson; PhD Organic Chemistry-M.I.T., American Chemical Society, member

266. Lawrence H. Johnston; Emeritus Prof. of Physics: University of Idaho

267. Theodor Liss; PhD Chemistry-M.I.T.

267. Braxton Alfred; Emeritus Prof. of Anthropology, University of British Columbia

268. Paul D. Brown; Asst. Prof. of Environmental Studies; Trinity Western University (Canada)

269. Marvin Fritzler; Prof. of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Medical School

270. Theodore Saito; Project Manager, Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

271. Muzaffar Iqbal; PhD Chemistry-University of Saskatchewan; Center for Theology the Natural Sciences

272. William S. Pelletier; Emeritus Distinguished Prof. of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens

273. Keith Delaplane; Prof. of Entomology, University of Georgia

274. Ken Smith; Prof. of Mathematics, Central Michigan University

275. Clarence Fouche; Prof. of Biology, Virginia Intermont College

276. Thomas Milner; Asst. Prof. of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin

277. Brian J. Miller; PhD Physics-Duke University

278. Paul Nesselroade; Assoc. Prof. of Psychology, Simpson College

279. Donald F. Calbreath; Prof. of Chemistry, Whitworth College

280. William P. Purcell; PhD Physical Chemistry-Princeton University

281. Wesley Allen; Prof. of Computational Quantum Chemistry, University of Georgia

282. Jeanne Drisko; Asst. Prof., Kansas Medical Center, University of Kansas, School of Medicine

282. Chris Grace; Assoc. Prof. of Psychology, Biola University

283. Rosalind Picard; Assoc. Prof. Computer Science, M.I.T.

284. Garrick Little; Senior Scientist, Li-Cor, Li-Cor

285. Martin Poenie; Assoc. Prof. of Molecular Cell & Developmental Biology, University of Texas, Austin

286. Russell W. Carlson; Prof. of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Georgia

287. Hugh Nutley; Prof. Emeritus of Physics & Engineering, Seattle Pacific U.

288. John Bloom; Assoc. Prof., Physics, Biola University

289. Fred Skiff; Prof. of Physics, University of Iowa

290. Paul Kuld; Assoc. Prof., Biological Science, Biola University

291. Moorad Alexanian; Prof. of Physics, University of North Carolina, Wilmington

292. Thomas Saleska; Prof. of Biology, Concordia University

293. Ralph W. Seelke; Prof. & Chair of Dept. of Biology & Earth Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Superior

294. James G. Harman; Assoc. Chair, Dept. of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Texas Tech University

295. Lennart Moller; Prof. of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, University of Stockholm

296. Michael Atchison; Prof. of Biochemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Vet School

297. Rebecca W. Keller; Research Prof., Dept. of Chemistry, University of New Mexico

298. Terry Morrison; PhD Chemistry-Syracuse University

299. Robert F. DeHaan; PhD Human Development-University of Chicago

300. Matti Lesola; Prof., Laboratory of Bioprocess Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology

301. Bruce Evans; Assoc. Prof. of Biology, Huntington College

302. Jim Gibson; PhD Biology-Loma Linda University

303. David Ness; PhD Anthropology-Temple University

304. Bijan Nemati; Senior Engineer, Jet Propulsion Lab (NASA)

305. Stan E. Lennard; Clinical Assoc. Prof. of Surgery, University of Washington

306. Rafe Payne; Prof. & Chair, Biola Dept. of Biological Sciences, Biola University

307. Phillip Savage; Prof. of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan

308. Daniel Dix; Assoc. Prof. of Mathematics, University of South Carolina

309. Ed Karlow; Chair, Dept. of Physics, LaSierra University

310. James Harbrecht; Clinical Assoc. Prof., University of Kansas Medical Center

311. Robert W. Smith; Prof. of Chemistry, University of Nebraska, Omaha

312. Robert DiSilvestro; PhD Biochemistry-Texas A & M University

313. David Prentice; Prof., Dept. of Life Sciences, Indiana State University

314. Walt Stangl; Assoc. Prof. of Mathematics, Biola University

315. James Tour; Chao Prof. of Chemistry, Rice University

316. Todd Watson; Asst. Prof. of Urban & Community Forestry, Texas A & M University

317. Robert Waltzer; Assoc. Prof. of Biology, Belhaven College

318. Vincente Villa; Prof. of Biology, Southwestern University

319. Richard Sternberg: Postdoctoral Fellow, Invertebrate Biology: Smithsonian Institute

320. James Tumlin; Assoc. Prof. of Medicine, Emory University

321. David A. Kaufmann, Ph.D. Anatomy, Univ. of Iowa Prof. of Exercise Science, Univ. of Florida (retired). Secretary of Creation Research Society Board of Directors.

322. Glen W. Wolfrom, Ph.D., Animal Science, Univ. of Mo. Clinical Research Scientist, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. Membership Secretary of Creation Research Society Board of Directors.

323. Theodore P. Aufdemberge, Ph.D. Physical Geography, Univ. of Michigan Prof. of Geography and Earth Science, Concordia College (retired). Financial Secretary of Creation Research Society Board of Directors.

324. Emmett L. Williams, Ph.D. Materials Engineering, Clemson Univ. Scientist, Lockheed-Georgia Co. (retired). Editor of Creation Research Society Quarterly as seen on the Creation Research Society Board of Directors page.

325. Gary H. LocklairPh. D. ABD, Computer Science, NSU, Asst. Prof. and Chair of Computer Science, Concordia University Wisconsin. Listed on Creation Research Society's Board of Directors.

326. John K. Reed Ph.D. Geology, Univ. of South Carolina, Principal Engineer, Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Listed on Creation Research Society's Board of Directors.

327. Ronald G. Samec, Ph.D. Physics, Clemson Univ., Chair, Science Education, Prof. Physics and Astronomy, Bob Jones Univ. Listed on Creation Research Society's Board of Directors.

328. Sharon K. Bullock, Ph.D. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, see her bio on the Institute for Creation Research's page of Creation Scientists.

329. Gregory J. Brewer, Ph.D. Biology (UCSD), Professor of Neurology and Medical Microbiology at Southern Illinois University. See his "The Imminent Death of Darwinism and the Rise of Intelligent Design".

330. Keith H. Wanser, Ph.D. Condensed Matter Physics, professor of physics at California State University, Fullerton. See his bio on the Institute for Creation Research's page of Creation Scientists.

331. Arlo Moehlenpah, D.Sc. Chemical Engineering, has served on the faculties of Macalester College, Wisconsin State University, and San Joaquin Delta College. See his bio on the Institute for Creation Research's page of Creation Scientists.

332. Dr. Malcolm Cutchins, Ph.D. Engineering Mechanics, Professor Emeritus of Aerospace Engineering at Auburn University. See his bio on the Institute for Creation Research's page of Creation Scientists.

333. David A. Demick, M.D. See his bio on the Institute for Creation Research's page of Creation Scientists.

334. John Silvius, Ph.D. Plant Physiology - West Virginia. See his name on the Institute for Creation Research's list of Creation Scientists.

335. Terry Mortenson, Ph.D. in history of geology, Coventry University, England. See his bio on Answers in Genesis website.

336. John C. Whitcomb, Th.D. served as Professor of Theology and Old Testament at Grace Theological Seminary, Winona Lake, IN, for 38 years. See his bio on Answers in Genesis website.

337. Prof. Vladimir Betina, PhD, Microbiology, Biochemistry & Biology. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

338. Prof. Sung-Do Cha, PhD Physics. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

339. Choong-Kuk Chang, PhD, Genetics, Princeton University. Described in Creation Science In Korea.

340. Prof. Jeun-Sik Chang, Aeronautical Engineering, PhD. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

341. Prof. Chung-Il Cho, Biology Education, PhD. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

342. Bob Compton, Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (from Washington State University), Ph.D. in Physiology (University of Wisconsin/Madison). See his bio on Answers in Genesis website.

343. Lionel Dahmer, PhD Organic Chemistry. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page and reported as technical review liason for Earth and Planetary Science papers for the 4th International Conference on Creationism.

344. Raymond V. Damadian, M.D., Pioneer of magnetic resonance imaging, as seen on his bio page. (see also this interesting Scientific American article about him.

345. Chris Darnbrough, Biochemist, PhD. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page or see his "Genes -- created but evolving". In Concepts in Creationism, E.H. Andrews, W. Gitt, and W.J. Ouweneel (eds.), pp. 241-266. Herts, England: Evangelical Press.

346. Douglas Dean, Ph.D. in Biology, as listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

347. Stephen W. Deckard (Ed.D. Univesity of Sarasota), Assistant Professor of Education. See his bio on the Answers in Genesis website.

348. Prof. Dennis L. Englin, Professor of Geophysics (Ed.D. Univesity of Southern California). See his bio on the Answers in Genesis website.

349. Stephen Grocott, Industrial Chemist (Ph.D. (1981), University of Western Australia in the field of organometallic chemistry of optically active metal complexes), Adjunct Professor of Chemistry at an Australian University. Member of Royal Australian Chemical Institute and American Chemical Society. See his bio on the Answers in Genesis website.

350. Barry Harker, PhD., Philosopher. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

351. Charles W. Harrison, Ph.D. Applied Physicist, Electromagnetics. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

352. George Hawke, Environmental Scientist, Ph.D. (air pollution meteorology from Macquarie University). See his bio on ChristianAnswers.net.

353. Margaret Helder, Botanist, PhD. See her bio page on the Answers in Genesis website or find some of her articles on the Creation Science Association of Alberta website.

354. Jonathan Henry, PhD Astronomy, See his "The Astronomy Book." a book about our solar system, galaxy and universe from a biblical creationist perspective. Also listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

355. Jonathan W. Jones, M.D. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

356. Raymond Jones, Creationist Agricultural Scientist, receiver of CSIRO Gold Medal for Research Excellence. See his bio or interview on the Answers in Genesis website.

357. Valery Karpounin, PhD (a Mathematical Science). Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

358. Prof. Gi-Tai Kim, Biology. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

359. Harriet Kim, Ph.D. Biochemistry (University of Wisconsin). Currently at Seoul National University, as described on Creation Science In Korea.

360. Prof. Jong-Bai Kim, Biochemistry. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

361. Jung-Han Kim (Professor Yonse University) Ph.D. Organic Chemistry (University of Houston). See Creation Science In Korea.

362. Jung-Wook Kim, Ph.D. Environmental Science (Professor at Seoul National University) as seen at Creation Science in Korea and listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

363. Kyoung-Rai Kim, Ph.D. Analytical Chemistry. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

364. Young-Gil Kim, Ph.D. Materials Science (Rensselaer Polytechnical Institute), currently at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology; former research scientist at NASA-Lewis Research Center and visiting professor at UCLA. See Creation Science in Korea.

365. Young In Kim, Ph.D. Engineering. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

366. Dr John W. Klotz, Ph.D Biology (University of Pittsburgh), former Professor of Biology and Chairman of the Division of Natural Science, Concordia. See his Biographical information page on Christiananswers.net.

367. Dr Vladimir F. Kondalenko, Ph.D. Cytology/Cell Pathology, currently with Institute for Carcinogenesis Research, Russian National Cancer Research Center, Moscow, Russia. See his The Principle of Preformism as a Creationist Approach in Immunology and Gerontology.

368. Leonid Korochkin, M.D., professor of Genetics at Yale University, head of molecular biology laboratory at Russian Academy of Sciences. See his biographical information.

369. Jin-Hyouk Kwon, Ph.D. Physics. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

370. Myung-Sang Kwon, Ph.D. Immunology. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

371. John Lennox, Ph.D. Mathematics (Emmanuel College, Cambridge), research fellow in Mathematics at Green College, Oxford, and senior fellow of Whitfield Institute. See his article Evolution - a theory in crisis? or a short biography of him.

372. John Leslie, Philosopher, Professor of philosophy University of Guelph. See The Prerequisites of Life in Our Universe .

373. John Burgeson, retired physicist, member American Scientific Affiliation (OEC, ~YEC). See his website, http://www.burgy.50megs.com/.

374. Dr Alan Love, Ph.D. Chemistry. Listed on Answers in Genesis creation scientists page.

375. David W. Snoke, Ph.D. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Associate Professor Dept Physics and Astronomy (University of Pittsburgh). See his, "In Favor of God-of-the-gaps reasoning.

376. Luke Randall, PhD (a biological science). See his bio on his website, wasdarwinwright.com.

377. Dr John Mann, Agriculturist, former director of Director of Alan Fletcher Research Station. See Interview with creationist biological control expert, Dr John Mann, M.B.E..

378. Dr. Ralph Matthews, Radiation Chemist, listed on Answers in Genesis Creation Scientist's page.

379. Glenn Jackson, EdD Science Education (University of Virginia), MS Environmental Biology (George Mason University). See his bio on his pro-creationits website, "Points of Origins.

380. Robert Lattimer, PhD, research scientist (physical/analytical chemist) in private industry. He is a member and past Chairman and Councilor the Akron Section, American Chemical Society. He is also a member of the pro-Intelligent Design Science Excellence for All Ohioans Speakers Bureau.

381. Walter L. Starkey, PhD. (Ohio State University), mechanical engineering professor at Ohio State for about 32 years. He is also a member of the pro-Intelligent Design Science Excellence for All Ohioans Speakers Bureau.

382. Bernard d'Abrera, world renouned butterfly expert and graduate of the University of New South Wales. See his The Concise Atlas of Butterflies of the World.

383. Michael Heisig, Ph.D. Molecular Biology (University of Freiburg). See his "Protein Families: chance or design?" (Technical Journal 15(3) 2001).

384. Royal Truman, Ph.D. Organic Chemistry (Michigan State University). See his "Protein Families: chance or design?" (Technical Journal 15(3) 2001).

385. Roland Süßmuth, Ph.D., specialist in mycoplasms, as seen in his paper presented at the 18th Creatioinst Biology Conference, "Die Bakteriengruppe der Mycoplasma".

386. Charlie Biles, Ph. D. Professor of Biology, East Central University. Teaches his doubts about evolution in his science classes.

387. Dr. Duane A. Schmidt, CEO of a large dental practice. See his article questioning evolution, "In the Beginning was ... what? or his book, "And God Created Darwin: the Death of Darwinism.

388. Donald R. Moeller, M.D., D.D.S. See his article, Big-Time Smile, Dentition: Impossible Accident or Design?, which also lists his professional and medical credentials.

389. Wernher von Braun, PhD in physics from the University of Berlin (Nasa Rocket Scientist). See his Article advocating design and questioning evolution, addressed to the California State Board of Education in 1972.

390. Robert Spitzer (Physicist, Jesuit Priest, president of Gonzaga College), Ph.D. Philosophy. See, for example hear his talk on the anthropic principle.

391. William Bordeaux, D.A., Chemistry, College Professor, as seen on his comments regarding good evidence for intelligent design and problems with evolution on the COMMENTS ON PROPOSED MODIFICATIONS TO DRAFT OF OHIO SCIENCE ACADEMIC CONTENT STANDARDS TENTH GRADE, LIFE SCIENCES SECTION.

392. Harold Campbell, Ph.D., Neurosciences, Associate Professor of Biology, as seen on his comments regarding problems with evolution on the COMMENTS ON PROPOSED MODIFICATIONS TO DRAFT OF OHIO SCIENCE ACADEMIC CONTENT STANDARDS TENTH GRADE, LIFE SCIENCES SECTION.

393. Charles Casteel, M.D. (Urologist), as seen in how he agreed with the COMMENTS ON PROPOSED MODIFICATIONS TO DRAFT OF OHIO SCIENCE ACADEMIC CONTENT STANDARDS TENTH GRADE, LIFE SCIENCES SECTION.

394. Curt Deckert, Ph.D. as seen in his Eye Design Book.

395. Glen Brindley, MD, as seen in his talk at the "Truth and Intelligent Design Conference" in Temple, Texas (April 12-13 Bell County Expo, Temple, Texas).

396. M.E. Clark, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, College of Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, as seen in his forward of Why DO Men Believe Evolution Against All Odds?".

397. Sean Pitman, M.D., as seen in his "The Emperor Has No Clothes".

398. Stephen Huxley, Ph.D., Professor of Information and Decision Modeling at the University of San Francisco as seen in his involvement with the IDEA 2002 Conference at USF.

The following scientists (#'s 399-418) signed a list of scientists, calling themselves "Georgia Scientists for Academic Freedom," sent in an open letter to the Cobb County School Board in Georgia, on September 19, 2002. The scientists agreed with the following statement:

"We are skeptical of claims for the ability of random mutation and natural selection to account for the complexity of life. Careful examination of the evidence for Darwinian theory should be encouraged."

This article contains details and confirmation contact information.

399. Michael A. Covington: University of Georgia: Associate Director, Artificial Intelligence Center: PhD - Linguistics, Yale.

400. Cham E. Dallas: University of Georgia: Professor, Pharmaceutics and Biomedical Sciences, and Director, Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program: PhD - Toxicology, University of Texas, Austin.

401. Warren Gilson: University of Georgia: Extension Dairy Scientist and Associate Professor of Dairy Science: PhD - Dairy Science, The Ohio State University.

402. Robert W. Wentworth: University of Georgia: Health and Safety Training Coordinator: PhD - Toxicology, University of Georgia.

403. Russell S. Peak: Georgia Institute of Technology: Senior Researcher, Engineering Information Systems: PhD - Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology.

404. Mark D. Geil: Georgia Institute of Technology: Assistant Professor, Applied Physiology: PhD - Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University.

405. Daniel W. Tedder: Georgia Institute of Technology: Associate Professor, Chemical Engineering: PhD - Chemical Engineering, University of Wisconsin.

406. Dewey H. Hodges: Georgia Institute of Technology: Professor, Aerospace Engineering: PhD - Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, Stanford University.

407. John H. Bordelon: Georgia Institute of Technology: Senior Research Engineer, Electrical Engineering: PhD - Electrical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology.

408. Mark G. White: Georgia Institute of Technology: Professor, Chemical Engineering: PhD - Chemical Engineering, Rice University.

409. Nolan E. Hertel: Georgia Institute of Technology: Professor, Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Health Physics: PhD - Nuclear Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

410. J. Carson Meredith: Georgia Institute of Technology: Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering: PhD - Chemical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin.

411. Rodney D. Ice: Georgia Institute of Technology: Principle Research Scientist and Adjunct Professor, Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Health Physics: PhD - Radiological Science, Purdue University.

412. Bretta King: Spelman College: Assistant Professor, Chemistry: PhD - Physical Chemistry, Howard University.

413. Gary L. Achtemeier: USDA Forest Service: Director, Southern High-Resolution Modeling Consortium: PhD - Meteorology, Florida State University.

414. Kieran M. Clements: Toccoa Falls College: Assistant Professor, Natural Science: PhD - Entomology, North Carolina State University.

415. Richard M. Austin, Jr.: Piedmont College: Associate Professor, Biology and Chair, Natural Sciences.

416. Leon L. Combs: Kennesaw State University: Professor and Chair, Chemistry and Biochemistry: PhD - Chemical Physics, Louisiana State University.

417. Norman E. Schmidt: Georgia Southern University: Associate Professor, Chemistry: PhD - Chemistry, University of South Carolina.

418. Allison J. Dobson: Georgia Southern University: Assistant Professor, Chemistry: PhD - Chemistry, The Ohio State University.

The above "Georgia Scientists for Academic Freedom" were at the same time backed by the following scientists (#'s 419-445) nationwide. Scientists on this, “A Scientific Dissent from Darwinism”, also agreed to:

"We are skeptical of claims for the ability of random mutation and natural selection to account for the complexity of life. Careful examination of the evidence for Darwinian theory should be encouraged."

This article contains details and confirmation contact information.

419. Chiu, Shing-Yan: Professor of Physiology: University of Wisconsin, Madison: PhD Physiology & Biophysics, University of Washington.

420. Notz, William: Professor of Statistics: Ohio State University: PhD Statistics, Cornell University.

421. Schaefer, Dale: PhD Physical Chemistry, Massachusets Institute of Technology.

422. Parnell, Darrell R.: PhD University Level Science Education, Kansas State University.

423. Davis, Melody L.: PhD Chemistry, Princeton University.

424. Reynolds, Dan W.: Research Investigator: GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals: PhD Organic Chemistry, University of Texas, Austin.

425. Johnson, Fred L.: Project Leader in Clinical Research: Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: PhD Pathology, Vanderbilt University.

426. Hunter, Cornelius G.: PhD Biophysics, University of Illinois: Author: “Darwin’s God”.

427. Purdom, Georgia: PhD Molecular Genetics, Ohio State University.

428. Wegner, Gerald S.: PhD Entomology, Loyola University.

429. Kuruvilla, Heather G.: Assitant Professor of Biology: Cedarville University: PhD Biological Sciences, S.U.N.Y at Buffalo.

430. Zuill, Henry: Emeritus Professor of Biology: Union College.

431. Mahan, Donald C.: Professor of Animal Nutrition: Ohio State University.

432. Brejda, John J: PhD Agronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.

433. Johnson, Jerry D.: Senior Toxicologist: Battelle Institute: PhD Pharmacology & Toxicology, Purdue University.

434. Linton, Alan H.: Emeritus Professor of Bacteriology: University of Bristol.

435. Keil, Douglas L.: Engineering Manager: Lam Research Corporation: PhD Plasma Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

436. Adrian, Neal R.: Principal Investigator, Environmental Science: US Army Research & Development Center: PhD University of Oklahoma, Microbiology.

437. Swanson, Mark B.: PhD Biochemistry, University of Illinois.

438. Everson, William V.: Research Fellow: Oak Ridge Institute for Science & Education: PhD Human Physiology, Penn State College of Medicine.

439. Fuller, Mark E.: Research Scientist: Envirogen Inc.: PhD Microbiology, University of California, Davis.

440. Kent, Michael: Research Scientist: Sandia National Labs: PhD Materials Science, University of Minnesota.

441. Kinnaird, Michael G.: Director of R & D: Chemtek, Inc.: PhD Organic Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

442. Line, Peter: Research Officer, Brain Sciences Institute: Swinburne University of Tech: PhD Neuroscience, Swinburne U. of Tech, Australia.

443. Brits, Rudolf: PhD Nuclear Chemistry, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.

444. Worraker, John William: Senior Software Development Engineer: Hyprotech Uk Ltd.: PhD Applied Mathematics, University of Bristol.

445. Ellmers, Lee: Professor of Physics & Mathematics: Cedarville University: PhD Physics, Syracuse University

The following scientists (#'s 446 - 481) publicly affirmed the following tenets, legitimizing the teaching of intelligent design in the classroom, in a list of "Fifty-two Ohio Scientists Call for Academic Freedom on Darwin’s Theory":

To Enhance the Effectiveness of Ohio Science Education, as Scientists … We Affirm:

  • That biological evolution is an important scientific theory that should be taught in the classroom;
  • That a quality science education should prepare students to distinguish the data and testable theories of science from religious or philosophical claims that are made in the name of science;
  • That a science curriculum should help students understand why the subject of biological evolution generates controversy;
  • That where alternative scientific theories exist in any area of inquiry (such as wave vs. particle theories of light, biological evolution vs. intelligent design, etc.), students should be permitted to learn the evidence for and against them;
  • That a science curriculum should encourage critical thinking and informed participation in public discussions about biological origins.

    We Oppose:
  • Religious or anti-religious indoctrination in a class specifically dedicated to teaching within the discipline of science;
  • The censorship of scientific views that may challenge current theories of origins.

    446. David Zartman, Ph.D., Genetics & Animal Breeding, The Ohio State University

    447. Daniel Kuebler, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biology, Franciscan University of Steubenville

    448. Karl A. Weber, Ph.D., Physical & Theoretical Organic Chemistry

    449. Paul Madtes, Jr., Ph.D., Chairman, Biology Department, Mount Vernon Nazarene College

    450. W. John Durfee, D.V.M., DACLAM, Director, Veterinary Research Resources, Case Western Reserve University Medical School

    451. Stanley A. Watson, Ph.D., Cereal Chemistry, Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center, The Ohio State University, Retired

    452. Mark B. Swanson, Ph.D., Biochemistry

    453. Timothy W. Schenz, Ph.D., Physical Chemistry

    454. Steven Gollmer, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Physics, Cedarville College

    454. Drazen Petrinec, M.D., F.A.C.S., Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine

    455. James Menart, Ph.D., Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State University

    456. Jeffrey Weiland, M.D., College of Medicine, The Ohio State University

    457. David A. Johnston, Ph.D., Research Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wright State University

    458. George F. Martin, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Anatomy and Neuroscience, The Ohio State University

    459. Gregory Ness, DDS, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Ohio State University

    460. Leroy Eimers, Ph.D., Professor of Physics and Mathematics, Cedarville College

    461. Glen R. Needham, Ph.D., Entomology, The Ohio State University

    462. Sherwood G. Talbert, P.E., MSME, Mechanical Engineering

    463. Joseph R. McShannic, M.D., F.A.C.S., Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine

    464. Mitch Wolff, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wright State University

    465. John A. Fink, M.D., F.A.C.S., Associate Professor of Surgery, Northeastern Ohio College of Medicine

    466. Pavi Thomas, Ph.D., Mechanical Engineering

    467. Donal P. O’Mathuna, Ph.D., Professor of Bioethics and Chemistry, Mount Carmel College of Nursing, Columbus

    468. Kimberly Kinateder, Ph.D., Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Wright State University

    469. Ron Neiswander, M.S., Chemistry, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University

    470. Gerald P. Chubb, P.E., Ph.D., Associate Professor, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Aviation, The Ohio State University

    471. Mark D. Foster, Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, The University of Akron

    472. Kenneth S. Cada, M.S., Inorganic Chemistry

    473. Arthur Dalton, M.D., Assistant Professor of Surgery, Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine

    474. William Shulaw, DVM, Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University

    475. Robert E. Bailey, Ph.D., Nuclear Engineering, Prof. Emeritus Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University

    476. Alfred Ciraldo, M.D., Assistant Professor of Surgery, Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine

    477. Kim Laurell, DDS, MSD, former Assistant Professor of Prosthetic Dentistry, The Ohio State University

    478. K. David Monson, Ph.D., Analytical Chemistry

    479. Henry R. Busby, Ph.D., Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University

    480. Christopher Boshkos, M.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine, Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine

    480. Richard Slemons, DVM, Ph.D., Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University of Physics & Mathematics: Cedarville University: PhD Physics, Syracuse University.

    More to come when I get time!

    Note 1.

    It should be noted that there are other scientists who are committed evolutionists, but have yet expressed doubt about various mainstream theories on the origin and diversification of life. For example, Francis Crick wrote "Life Itself: Its Origin and Nature" (1981) in which he expressed doubt that the origin of life was possible on earth. Similarly, Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe have sharply critiqued the origin of life on earth in favor of evolution from space (see "Evolution from Space") Robert Shapiro in his "Origins: A Skeptic's Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth" (1986) also gave a similar critique although he did not postulate that life came from space.